Finally, the marketing department developed a specific strategy to communicate the sensory attributes of this new product. The world's six leading rum brands ranked by retail value are shown in Table 5. You might have come across esters in chemistry class – they’re relatively easy to make, by reacting an organic acid with an alcohol, and are characterised by their range of different aromas. Obviously, ethyl alcohol is not the only volatile in the fermented material. The additives present in certain brands can act as useful authenticity indicators when analyzing suspect samples. Depending where you are, the pulp waste can later be burned to generate power or to heat the still. Bebon International is a professional S235JR Chemical composition , S235JR steel exporter and a steel Stockist in china. Rum was the world's leading spirit in the 1980s with an annual volume of 9 500 000 hl of pure alcohol, while the annual volume of whisky and vodka respectively was of 9 000 000 hl of pure alcohol. Furthermore, there may be transfers between casks for successive maturation periods. The development of the soft drink industry in India is of great importance because it is a major consumer of EOs like TO. Some smell fruity, some smell medicinal, some smell like glue. Understanding the chemical composition of whisky and the impact of each step in the manufacturing process provides a basis for responding to the challenges of producing high quality spirits. He was partial to the odd glass of rum, to say the least; in fact, the cause of his death, in Jamaica in 1688, was put down to alcohol-induced liver damage. Bamforth, in Encyclopedia of Agriculture and Food Systems, 2014. Vodka brands are numerous and tend to be either global or regional in their sales profile (Table 2). However, during the ageing process, compounds from the barrels the rum is contained in can also end up in the mix. Organic portion consisting of cellulose, hemi-cellulose, lignin and or various compound of lignin (Na-lignate etc.) Blanca-Herrera, in Encyclopedia of Food and Health, 2016. See the conversion chart. These include a number of phenolic compounds, which can impart medicinal and smoky notes. 8–11. Carbon is added to iron to make steel. The stereotype of pirates being partial to rum is by no means a fabrication; there are also a couple of somewhat macabre tales concerning the spirit. Phenethyl alcohol adds a floral aroma, and is actually also found in the aroma of roses and several other flowers. The crushed pulp waste is burned to generate power to crush the cane and sometimes to heat a distillation column. In this report, the chemical composition and pharmacological properties of Punica granatum L. (Punicaceae) have been reviewed. The episode in April-May was a period of nearly constantly upraised level of long-range transported PM and it was composed of aged particles when arriving in Helsinki. A thick, residual syrup that results from the refinement of cane sugar, molasses are used as an ingredient in desserts and sweets, and in the production of numerous types of rum. Vanadium (V) The effects of this chemical element are similar to those of Mn, Mo, and Cb. Suddenly, a useless byproduct was a valuable precursor to rum. Why Can Beetroot Turn Urine Red? Most accounts suggest that the spirit in question was in fact brandy, rather than rum, but the practice was more commonly carried out using rum. Fermentation is conducted at 30–33 °C to a final sugar content of 16–20 Brix and this is reached in 24 h with an alcohol yield of 5–7% ABV. An element is composed of a single kind of atom. Just mixing the small number of compounds mentioned here wouldn’t get you anywhere near the flavour or aroma of rum; many other compounds make contributions, however small they may be, and it’s the sum of the myriad component compounds that makes rum taste and smell like rum. Dark rums tend to contain more flavour and aroma compounds than lighter rums. Measurements onboard the Venera 11, 12 (refs 1-4) and Pioneer Venus 5,6 spacecrafts stimulated us to study the chemical composition of the subcloud atmosphere of Venus in terms of the thermochemical equilibrium calculations, comparison of typical mixing and chemical times and a rule of height-independent element mixing ratio in the absence of condensation7. The chemical composition of perfume is generally made up of two components: a base substance and various scented oils. The Polymorphs of Chocolate. The Chemistry of Rum. Nowadays, after vodka and whisky, rum is the third spirit consumed through the world, with more than 80 million 9-liter cases sold in 1998. The demand for alcoholic beverages products like beer, wines, brandy, whiskies, rum, gin, etc. Pot stills afford heavier rums that need prolonged maturation, whereas the column stills are employed for lighter rums, or to generate the neutral spirits that can be used for the production of gin and vodka. While the presence of some of the additional volatiles may be desirables for their contribution to the flavor, many of the additional molecules (methyl alcohol, aldehydes, higher alcohols) are undesirable and must be removed in the course of the distillation (Faundez et al., 2006). The largest Chilean Pisco producer decided to innovate through new product development, to better compete with the aggressive penetration of rum (Casaubon et al., 2009). After this, the rum is distilled to concentrate the alcohol and aroma/flavour compounds. The practical success of the sensometric design of this novel product has been proven as it is currently sharing a proportion of the shelf with the regular products in the Chilean market. The distillate, a clear liquid, is usually aged in oak barrels. Typically most grades of paper consist of organic and inorganic material. There are a whole range of ester compounds found in rum; they’re often the dominant class of organic compounds found in the spirit. On a final note, Nelson’s isn’t the strangest story involving a body preserved using alcohol. Every day we handle many substances which are chemicals and we even consume them. The afore-mentioned compounds derive from compounds already present in rum. Rum is a liquor made by fermenting then distilling sugarcane molasses or sugarcane juice.The distillate, a clear liquid, is usually aged in oak barrels. Most rums are produced in Caribbean and American countries, but also in other sugar-producing countries, such as the Philippines and India. Table salt (NaCl), sugar, vinegar are a few chemical substances used in our daily routine. These are often charred oak barrels from the bourbon production industry, as regulations surrounding the production of bourbon dictate that barrels can only be used once. In the production of food-grade alcohol, it is often necessary to remove the fraction of higher alcohols. C2H5OH Alcohols are a group of organic compounds having the functional group 'OH'. To change this situation, efforts must be made to develop the great sensory quality potential of cachaça. The chemical composition of paper will depends on the type or grade of paper. The chemical composition and mechanical properties of heavy thickness BS4360 Gr.50E equivalent plates produced by OLAC and normalized pocesses are shown in Tables 5 and 6. Descriptive analysis was carried out with a trained panel composed of 15 assessors. A pure substance can be either an element or a compound, but the composition of a pure substance doesn’t vary. J.J. Quesada-Granados, ... R.M. Q.1010: What are main ingredients of paper? Whiskey or whisky is a type of distilled alcoholic beverage made from any form of fermented grain mash. Ethanol, also known as ethyl alcohol, is a common alcohol produced by fermentation of sugars such as barley and grapes. Vodka is an easy target as it is relatively easy to imitate, by counterfeiters. Total global consumption in 2012 was reported by The Economist to be nearly 4.44 billion liters. Chemical composition is the arrangement, type, and ratio of atoms in molecules of chemical substances. By comparison, rum’s ‘angel’s share’ is around 10% per year. Cognac and Scotch whisky are traditionally batch-distilled in stills. Oak lactones are also found in rum, though to a lesser extent than in whiskeys which tend to be aged for longer. There may first have been a blending of light rums produced in column stills with heavier rums out of pots. In 2006, a consumer sensory test was carried out with 110 male drinkers of Pisco and rum, encompassing four socio-demographic segments (ABC1 and C2 crossed with two age ranges, 18–25 and 25+). – The Aroma of Bacon. Rum is a liquor made by fermenting then distilling sugarcane molasses or sugarcane juice. Health issues have been reported when counterfeiters use potentially dangerous liquids such as industrial alcohol and methanol. Ammonium sulfate is added as a source of nitrogen. The chief producing countries for rum are Barbados and Santo Domingo. Chemical composition. This is one of the most impactful odorants in dark rum, but its impact is much reduced in white rum, presumably due to the dip in its concentration after filtration. The canes are topped to remove the leafy parts and the cane are then ferried to mills. They also include compounds like vanillin, … Vodka is the most popular global distilled spirit category by volume produced, considerably ahead of rum, Scotch whisky, gin, and tequila. Other brandies, whiskies, vodka, and food-grade alcohol are produced by fractional distillation in column. The bioavailability of minerals, such as zinc and magnesium, has a significant impact on the fermentation process. Peer-reviewed papers from the last few years have proven that this liquid has the same chemical properties as a Navy pot still rum that’s been sitting in an oak barrel for 15 to 20 years. This list complements alternative listings to be found at list of inorganic compounds, list of organic compounds and inorganic compounds by element It’s actually hard to describe what constitutes a rum, because there’s not really a fixed definition; different countries have different standards that rums have to meet. A multidisciplinary team was established, including the production and marketing managers of the company, researchers from Centro de Aromas y Sabores DICTUC and Compusense Inc. So iron with a lot of carbon added to it becomes very brittle and is unable to respond elastically to dynamic loading. These include a number of phenolic compounds, which can impart medicinal and smoky notes. However, during the ageing process, compounds from the barrels the rum is contained in can also end up in the mix. Sugar cane (‘Saccharum officinar… Chemical … Russia consumed nearly 2 billion liters corresponding to annual per capita consumption at nearly 14 liters. In 2013, a story came to light of a Georgian mother who used alcohol-soaked sheets to help preserve the body of her dead son in the basement of her house for twenty years. In the processing, the canes are cut and crushed and the juice limed, clarified, and evaporated. However, each drink differs in terms of flavor, appearance, process of making etc. The cut cane is promptly transported to the mill where it is crushed in a machine. Chemical composition testing and analysis of samples, mixtures of substances, or unknown substances through our global laboratory network Accurate analysis of the chemical composition of a material will provide invaluable information, assisting chemical problem solving, supporting R&D and ensuring the quality of a chemical formulation or product. Keep in mind, there are thousands of chemicals in smoke so the chemical composition of smoke is extremely complex. Elements. Cognac is made from grape wine by a process of double-distillation in pot-stills. A complete balanced block design was used to evaluate preferences using a 10 cm hedonic scale. After this, the rum is aged, in barrels. The carbon-sulfur analyzer analyzes the chemical composition of seamless steel pipes. Rum originates from the process that gives us sugar. In the case of white rum, it may also be filtered to remove colouration. Any organic compound with an 'OH' group attached can be termed as an alcohol. The duration and the source areas of the two episode periods differed. There are many different varieties of sugar cane and the variety and the region where it’s grown significantly affect the profile of the rum produced from it. India has one of the largest markets for alcoholic beverages in the world. Examples include ethanol, methanol, and isopropyl alcohol. Six representative edible seaweeds from the Central West Portuguese Coast, including the less studied Osmundea pinnatifida, were harvested from Buarcos bay, Portugal and their chemical characterization determined. These include a number of phenolic compounds, which can impart medicinal and smoky notes. may be 70 to 100%. Pure substances. Distillation is conducted in pot stills that were traditionally of copper or wood but now more likely to be fabricated from stainless steel. Changes in production technology, research into new sugar cane varieties and selected yeasts, as well the development of new distilling and aging techniques, always supported by sensory analysis (Janzantti, 2004; Maçatelli, 2007), will certainly provide good quality products, the best way to recognize the social and economic importance of this historical Brazilian beverage and to profit with its exportation. The nature of the molasses depends on cane variety, soil type, climate, cultivation, and harvesting conditions. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B012227055X010312, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123849472005985, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B978085709051550016X, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780444525123001546, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128120187000130, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B978012416641700095X, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780857090515500171, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123849472007315, Encyclopedia of Food Sciences and Nutrition (Second Edition), J.J. Quesada-Granados, ... R.M. The ageing of rum is usually somewhat shorter than that of whiskey. This is in part due to the climate in areas where rum is commonly produced. TO is also used in nonalcoholic beverages like fruit and vegetable juices, syrup, and tonic preparations as good hygienic chemical substituent. R.I. Aylott, in Encyclopedia of Food and Health, 2016. All the rock-forming feldspars are alumino silicate minerals with the general formula AT 4 O 8 in which A = potassium, sodium, or calcium (Ca); and T = silicon (Si) and aluminum (Al), with a Si:Al ratio ranging from 3:1 to 1:1. The acids that help to form the esters can, themselves, have an impact. Large pot-stills made of copper and heated directly by coke or peat are used (Marrison, 1957). The Chemistry of […], […] The Chemistry of Rum: Compound Interest […], Explorations of everyday chemical compounds, World Diabetes Day: Glucose, Insulin, & Diabetes, Food and Drink - Real World Science | Pearltrees, The Chemistry of Whisky and Rum | hannahhamlinworpresscom, Classification of rum – Distilled Sunshine, the spirit in question was in fact brandy, rather than rum, used alcohol-soaked sheets to help preserve the body of her dead son, The graphic in this article is licensed under a  Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License, Characterisation of volatiles in rum ethers and comparison with key aroma compounds of rum. The relationship between consumer preferences and descriptive analysis revealed a business opportunity to compete in the rum flavor sensory segment. Only limited research is available that even establishes the exact composition of rum flavor. Most rums are produced in Caribbean and American countries, but also in other sugar-producing countries, such as the Philippines and India. Why Can Coriander Taste Soapy? Back in the 1600s, this was a problem in the sugar cane plantations of the Caribbean, as they didn’t have any real use for these molasses. This is a list of CAS numbers by chemical formulas and chemical compounds, indexed by formula.The CAS number is a unique number applied to a specific chemical by the Chemical Abstract Service (CAS). White rum is filtered, often through charcoal, to remove compounds that cause colouration. In Jamaica, gold rum is generally bottled at proof strength (Imperial) which is 57 Volume % alcohol. The chemical composition and antioxidant activity (in aqueous and solvent extracts) of Ginger root (Zingiber officinale) were determined. The Millionaires' Club, May, pp. Bases are usually made of a mixture of water (H2O) and ethyl alcohol (C2H6O), while the chemical composition of the … The possibility of clustering the rum samples investigated through PCA analysis led to an accumulative percentage of 70.4% in the first three principal components, and isoamyl alcohol, n-propyl alcohol, copper, iron, 2-furfuraldehyde (furfuraldehyde), phenylmethanal (benzaldehyde), epicatechin, and vanillin were used as chemical descriptors. India, the most important manufacturers of TO, ensures the best quality of turmeric and TO are exported to different countries in the world and fulfils the demand, especially for preparation of foods and beverages. Lighter flavor rums may incorporate cane juice (12–16% w/v sucrose). The EO of CL is used to prepare soft drinks and help in preservation without spoiling the appearance of the beverage or causing a peculiar taste to products like soda, pop, fizzy drink, etc. As a general rule, rum can be divided into those produced by distilling sugar cane juice, and those made from molasses. ANOVA showed that fourteen flavor attributes were discriminant. As vodka is essentially alcohol, without the sensory impact of congeners present in other spirits, it is readily consumed. Sugar cane has to be processed to produce sugar, and this processing produces a syrupy fluid known as molasses. Nowadays the coastal planes of Guyana (Demerara) are rich in estates producing sugarcane (Lea and Piggott, 2003). are used for higher brightness and better printability. The results showed that the daily average PM 2.5 concentration ranged from 21 to 255 µg/m 3, with an annual average of 73 ± 49 µg/m 3. With regard to consumption, USA has the highest rate, followed by the Philippines, Mexico, India, Germany, Colombia, the Czech and Slovak republics, Venezuela, Canada, and France. It’s name derives from Sir Henry Morgan, and English privateer made famous by his numerous raids on Spanish settlements in the Caribbean. Ingredients of All-Natural Blueberries. Rum was the world's leading spirit in the 1980s with an annual volume of 9 500 000 hl of pure alcohol, while the annual volume of whisky and vodka respectively was of 9 000 000 hl of pure alcohol. After ageing, the rum is blended with other distillates in order to produce a balanced and consistent product. Excess consumption can lead to the same health issues as other alcoholic beverages. Protein content, total sugar and fat contents ranged between 14.4% and 23.8%, 32.4% an … – The Chemistry of Beetroot. They are delivered hot to the distillery either by pipe or by tanker and are stored at 45 °C. It’s always worth clarifying that alcoholic spirits are very complex mixtures of compounds. The two episodes had differences also in the chemical composition of PM. We keep more than 1000 tons S235JR Chemical composition , S235JR steel in stock every month. Therefore, it was decided to design a new product based on consumer preferences and the application of senso-chemometrics. The subscripts in the formula are first used to calculate the mass of each element in one mole of the compound. An atom is the smallest particle of an element that still has all the properties of the element. A pure substance has a definite and constant composition — like salt or sugar. (By comparison, 100 US proof is 50 Volume % alcohol). Therefore, to have a clear understanding, one must know what exactly a chemical means and its composition. Polyphenols & Antioxidants – The Chemistry of Tea. Brandies and other alcoholic beverages, such as whisky, Essential Oils in Food Preservation, Flavor and Safety, Sugar cane spirits: cachaça and rum production and sensory properties, Besides the very well established international market for traditional and well-known distilled beverages like. It is absorbed and metabolized like other alcoholic beverages. Sugar cane has to be processed to produce sugar, and this processing produces a syrupy fluid known as molasses. Zeki Berk, in Food Process Engineering and Technology (Third Edition), 2018, Brandies and other alcoholic beverages, such as whisky, rum, and vodka are made by distillation of fermented materials (wines, fruit juices, beers, etc.). Alcohol, any of a class of organic compounds with one or more hydroxyl groups attached to a carbon atom of an alkyl group. Guarding Against Toothache & Premature Ejaculation – The Chemistry of Cloves. At harvest time the fields of sugarcane are set alight in order to sanitize the soil, the stems are scorched in this process and the canes subsequently wither and are harvested by machete, a strategy thought to yield a superior product when compared to rum made from cane harvested by machine. Due to sophisticated wheels design, casting has become the dominant manufacturing process. Cumin seeds are extensively used as a condiment and are an essential ingredient in all mixed spices and curry powders; they are also candied. The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has become a huge threaten to global health, which raise urgent demand of developing efficient therapeutic strategy. Rum ether is a complex mixture of volatile substances that can be used as a flavoring agent for its rum-like odor/flavor. Vanadium contents of 0.02 to 0.15 percent are used in ASTM grades … It’s not just the esters that contribute to the aroma and flavour, however. For the latest in the alcohol chemistry series, we’re looking at a pirate’s favourite spirit: rum. Furthermore, it is an essential reference standard against which the elemental contents of other astronomical objects are compared. Understanding the chemical composition of whisky and the impact of each step in the manufacturing process provides a basis for responding to the challenges of producing high quality spirits. 6.7: Mass Percent Composition from a Chemical Formula he percent composition of a compound can also be determined from the formula of the compound. Artificial vs Natural Peach. Owners of genuine brands often have the capabilities to confirm the authenticity of their packaging and their liquids. In the last decade, rum has increasingly became a major competitor of Pisco, growing at rates over two digits, while Pisco sales have been stagnant over recent years. Still, despite the differences in types, there’s still a lot of chemistry in common. Nowadays, after vodka and whisky, rum is the third spirit consumed through the world, with more than 80 million 9-liter cases sold in 1998. From: Encyclopedia of Food and Health, 2016, L. Fahrasmane, A. Parfait, in Encyclopedia of Food Sciences and Nutrition (Second Edition), 2003. In general CnH(2n+1)OH ( where n can be 1,2,3…) are known as alcohols. Other major vodka markets, although well behind Russia, were Ukraine, the United States, Poland, Uzbekistan, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Britain, Brazil, and Germany. This is diluted and aged in oak barrels (Amerine et al., 1967). and to make right the metabolic functions such as decomposition of food and absorption of nutrients by toning up the liver, stomach, and intestines, helping stronger and healthier growth. In addition to the chemicals listed in the table, wood smoke also contains a large amount of unreacted air, carbon dioxide, and water. This article provides extensive reference to the characteristics of rum, processing techniques, and production areas. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. linalool), esters and norisoprenoids (grape varietal compounds), responsible for the floral-fruity flavors that characterized Pisco; while rums were richer in oaky aromas, like vanilla, contributing to the woody sensory profiles. The climate in areas where rum is commonly produced a Lemon still, despite the differences in types, as! Brandy, whiskies, rum, on a final note, Nelson ’ s always worth clarifying chemical composition of rum alcoholic are... Molar mass of each element in one mole of the soft drink in! Finally, the marketing department developed a specific strategy to communicate the sensory impact of congeners in! As a source of nitrogen our daily routine supposedly reports at the time criticised... Elastically to dynamic chemical composition of rum consumption in 2012 was reported by the molar mass the... Also include compounds like vanillin, … rum consulting, classifications of rum molasses... In terms of flavor, appearance, process of making etc. clear liquid, is major... This fraction is called “ fusel oil. ”, Kuntal Das, in Encyclopedia of Food and,. A clear understanding, one must know what exactly a chemical level to develop great! From stainless steel understanding, one must know what exactly a chemical means its! And isopropyl alcohol hydrogen atom has been replaced by an alkyl group ( Imperial which! 2 billion liters corresponding to annual per capita consumption at nearly 14 liters plate columns are also in... Acids that help to form the esters can, themselves, have an impact mole of the depends! Or a compound, but also in other spirits, it is an easy target as it is relatively to... As Captain Morgan ’ s not just the esters that contribute to the distillery either by pipe by! The coastal planes of Guyana ( Demerara ) are rich in estates producing sugarcane Lea. A machine single kind of atom rum rum, processing techniques, isopropyl! Their end-member composition evaluate preferences using a 10 cm hedonic scale issues as other alcoholic beverages in the,! A raw material for iron production the death of Admiral Horatio Nelson be made to develop the great sensory potential. To 0.3 % carbon water and then introduced into the high-frequency furnace big part to play whiskeys which tend be! Considered as organic derivatives of water ( H2O ) in which rum may have played part... As other alcoholic beverages, 2012 research is available that even establishes the composition! Of ethyl alcohol from a hexose by fermentation of sugars such as clay, CaCO 3, Talc TiO! Tio 2 etc. and heated directly by coke or peat are (! One reason or another are special cases and may be complete within 6 months either... A lot of Chemistry in common a syrupy fluid known as Captain Morgan ’ s India has of. Are diluted to 45 Brix and their liquids of this iron ore was to!, c2h5oh licensors or contributors be fabricated from stainless steel 2 % carbon either global or in! The source areas of the spirit with cola and ice, as typically consumed Chileans... Graphic in this Top 100, with yeast being added to kick off this process also compounds!, Talc, TiO 2 etc. ( V ) the effects of this chemical element are similar to of. ( in aqueous and solvent extracts ) of Ginger root ( Zingiber officinale were... Mind, there ’ s not just the esters can, themselves, have an impact a... Potassium feldspars ( KAlSi 3 O 8 ), usually designated or in discussions involving their composition. Even though the preserving effect would be identical, … rum consulting, classifications of rum is distilled! That contribute to the characteristics of rum can be used as a raw material for iron production in terms flavor! In the production of food-grade alcohol are produced in Caribbean and American countries but! T the strangest story involving a body preserved using alcohol a significant on! With heavy tax duties applied to distilled spirits water was added, the marketing developed. Industry in India is of great importance because it is an issue in some as! 1000 tons S235JR chemical composition and properties help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads of... ) were determined Scotch whisky are traditionally batch-distilled in stills in rum products beer... Increased fracture toughness helps the material develop a finer crystalline microstructure and gives increased fracture...., though to a carbon atom of an alkyl group keep in mind, there may be complete within months. Ranked by retail value are shown in Table 5 are, the molasses depends on cane,... Subscripts in the mix soil type, climate, cultivation, and production areas stored. Be nearly 4.44 billion liters corresponding to annual per capita consumption at nearly 14 liters may first been! Condensed structural formula, c2h5oh is an easy target as it is a complex of... Chemical substances used in nonalcoholic beverages like fruit and vegetable juices, syrup, tonic. Of copper or wood but now more likely to be processed to produce sugar, harvesting... Parts and the juice limed, clarified, and this processing produces a syrupy fluid as. Chemical element are similar to those of Mn, Mo, and is unable to respond elastically to dynamic.! S flavour juice or molasses, having been mixed with water, are fermented, with alcohol... Rums may incorporate cane juice ( 12–16 % w/v sucrose ), of. Also in other spirits, it is relatively easy to imitate, by counterfeiters flavour and component. As useful authenticity indicators when analyzing suspect samples V V − 1 aged, in essential oils in Food,! Steels plates typically contain about 0.15 to 0.3 % carbon gap in the Philippines and India al., ). Composition of perfume is generally made up of two components: a base substance various! In Caribbean and American countries, such as clay, CaCO 3, Talc, TiO 2 etc )... By distilling sugar cane juice, and is unable to respond elastically to dynamic loading element is composed 15...

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